sane(7)                  SANE Scanner Access Now Easy                  sane(7)


       sane - Scanner Access Now Easy: API for accessing scanners


       SANE  is an application programming interface (API) that provides stan-
       dardized access to any raster image scanner hardware. The  standardized
       interface  makes  it possible to write just one driver for each scanner
       device instead of one driver for each scanner and application.

       While SANE is primarily targeted at a UNIX  environment,  the  standard
       has been carefully designed to make it possible to implement the API on
       virtually any hardware or operating system.

       This manual page provides a summary of the information available  about

       If  you  have  trouble getting your scanner detected, read the PROBLEMS


       An application that uses the SANE interface is called a SANE  frontend.
       A  driver  that implements the SANE interface is called a SANE backend.
       A meta backend provides some means to manage one or  more  other  back-


       The  package sane-backends contains backends, documentation, networking
       support, and the command line frontend scanimage(1).  The frontends xs-
       canimage(1),  xcam(1),  and  scanadf(1)  are  included  in  the package
       sane-frontends.  Both packages can be downloaded from the SANE homepage
       (   Information about other frontends and
       backends can also be found on the SANE homepage.


       The following sections provide short descriptions and links to more in-
       formation  about  several  aspects  of  SANE.   A name with a number in
       parenthesis (e.g.  sane-dll(5)) points to a manual page. In  this  case
       man 5 sane-dll   will   display   the   page.   Entries  like  /usr/lo-
       cal/share/doc/sane-backends/README are references to  text  files  that
       were   copied   to   the   SANE   documentation   directory   (/usr/lo-
       cal/share/doc/sane-backends/) during installation. Everything else is a
       URL to a resource on the web.

       SANE homepage
         Information on all aspects of SANE including a tutorial and a link to
         the   SANE   FAQ   can   be   found    on    the    SANE    homepage:

       SANE device lists
         The  SANE  device  lists contain information about the status of SANE
         support for a specific device. If your scanner is  not  listed  there
         (either supported or unsupported), please contact us. See section HOW
         CAN YOU HELP SANE for details. There are lists for specific  releases
         of  SANE,  for  the  current development version and a search engine:   The  lists
         are  also installed on your system at /usr/local/share/doc/sane-back-

       SANE mailing list
         There is a mailing list for the purpose of discussing the SANE  stan-
         dard and its implementations: sane-devel.  Despite its name, the list
         is not only intended for developers, but also for  users.  There  are
         also some more lists for special topics. However, for users, sane-de-
         vel  is  the  right  list.  How   to   subscribe   and   unsubscribe:

       SANE IRC channel
         The  IRC  (Internet  Relay  Chat)  channel  #sane can be found on the
         Freenode network ( It's for  discussing  SANE  prob-
         lems,  talking  about  development and general SANE related chatting.
         Before asking for help, please read the other documentation mentioned
         in  this  manual page. The channel's topic is also used for announce-
         ments of  problems  with  SANE  infrastructure  (mailing  lists,  web
         server, etc.).

       Compiling and installing SANE
         Look  at  /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/README and the os-depen-
         dent README files for  information  about  compiling  and  installing

       SCSI configuration
         For  information  about  various  systems  and  SCSI  controllers see

       USB configuration
         For information about USB configuration see sane-usb(5).


         Command-line frontend. See scanimage(1).

         SANE network daemon that allows remote clients to access image acqui-
         sition devices available on the local host. See saned(8).

         Command-line  tool  to find SCSI and USB scanners and determine their
         UNIX device files. See sane-find-scanner(1).

       Also, have a look at the sane-frontends package (which includes  xscan-
       image(1), xcam(1), and scanadf(1)) and the frontend information page at


         Supports Abaton flatbed scanners such as the Scan 300/GS  (8bit,  256
         levels  of  gray) and the Scan 300/S (black and white, untested). See
         sane-abaton(5) for details.

         Supports AGFA Focus scanners and the Siemens S9036  (untested).   See
         sane-agfafocus(5) for details.

         Supports Apple flatbed scanners including the following scanners: Ap-
         pleScanner, OneScanner and ColorOneScanner. See sane-apple(5) for de-

         Supports  several  Artec/Ultima  SCSI flatbed scanners as well as the
         BlackWidow BW4800SP and the Plustek 19200S. See sane-artec(5) for de-

         Supports the Artec E+ 48U scanner and re-badged models like Tevion MD
         9693, Medion MD 9693, Medion MD 9705 and Trust  Easy  Webscan  19200.
         See sane-artec_eplus48u(5) for details.

         Supports   the  Artec  AS6E  parallel  port  interface  scanner.  See
         sane-as6e(5) for details.

         Supports several Avision based scanners including the  original  Avi-
         sion  scanners  (like  AV 630, AV 620, ...) as well as the HP ScanJet
         53xx and 74xx series, Fujitsu ScanPartner, some  Mitsubishi  and  Mi-
         nolta film-scanners.  See sane-avision(5) for details.

         Supports  Bell+Howell  Copiscan  II  series  document  scanners.  See
         sane-bh(5) for details.

         Supports the CanoScan 300, CanoScan  600,  and  CanoScan  2700F  SCSI
         flatbed scanners. See sane-canon(5) for details.

         Supports   the   CanoScan   630u   and   636u   USB   scanners.   See
         sane-canon630u(5) for details.

         Supports  the  Canon  DR-Series  ADF  SCSI  and  USB  scanners.   See
         sane-canon_dr(5) for details.

         Supports   the   CanoScan   LiDE   70   and  600  USB  scanners.  See
         sane-canon_lide70(5) for details.

         Supports the CanoScan FB330P, FB630P, N340P and N640P  parallel  port
         scanners.  See sane-canon_pp(5) for details.

         Support for Corex Cardscan USB scanners. See sane-cardscan(5) for de-

       coolscan coolscan2 coolscan3
         Supports  Nikon   Coolscan   film-scanners.   See   sane-coolscan(5),
         sane-coolscan2(5) and sane-coolscan3(5) for details.

         Supports  Epson-based  Fujitsu  USB scanners. See sane-epjitsu(5) for

         Old driver for Epson SCSI, parallel port and  USB  flatbed  scanners.
         See sane-epson(5) for details but try epson2 first.

         Newer  driver  for Epson SCSI, parallel port, network and USB flatbed
         scanners (try this before epson  which  is  outdated).  See  sane-ep-
         son2(5) for details.

         Supports scanners through the eSCL protocol. See sane-escl(5) for de-

         Supports most Fujitsu SCSI and USB, flatbed  and  adf  scanners.  See
         sane-fujitsu(5) for details.

         Supports  several  scanners  based on the Genesys Logic GL646, GL841,
         GL843, GL847 and GL124 chips like the Medion 6471 and Hewlett-Packard
         2300c.  See sane-genesys(5) for details.

         Supports  scanners  based  on the Grandtech GT-6801 and GT-6816 chips
         like the Artec Ultima 2000 and several Mustek BearPaw CU and TA  mod-
         Some  Genius, Lexmark, Medion, Packard Bell, Plustek, and Trust scan-
         ners are also supported. See sane-gt68xx(5) for details.

         Supports Hewlett-Packard ScanJet scanners which utilize SCL  (Scanner
         Control Language by HP). See sane-hp(5) for details.

         Supports  the  Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 5S scanner. See sane-hpsj5s(5)
         for details.

         Supports the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 3500 series. See  sane-hp3500(5)
         for details.

         Supports  the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 3900 series. See sane-hp3900(5)
         for details.

         Supports the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 4200 series. See  sane-hp4200(5)
         for details.

         Supports the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 54XXC series. See sane-hp5400(5)
         for details.

         Supports   the   Hewlett-Packard   LaserJet   M1005   scanner.    See
         sane-hpljm1005(5) for details.

         Supports  the  Ricoh  IS450 family of SCSI scanners. See sane-hs2p(5)
         for details.

         Supports some IBM and Ricoh SCSI scanners. See  sane-ibm(5)  for  de-

         Supports some large Kodak scanners. See sane-kodak(5) for details.

         Supports  Kodak  AiO  printer/scanners.  See sane-kodakaio(5) for de-

         Supports Panasonic KV-S102xC scanners. See  sane-kvs1025(5)  for  de-

         Supports  the LEO S3 and the Across FS-1130, which is a re-badged LEO
         FS-1130 scanner. See sane-leo(5) for details.

         Supports the Lexmark X1100 series  of  USB  scanners.  See  sane-lex-
         mark(5) for details.

         Supports  the  Lexmark  X2600  series  of USB scanners. See sane-lex-
         mark_x2600(5) for details.

         Supports  the  Mustek  BearPaw  1200F  USB   flatbed   scanner.   See
         sane-ma1509(5) for details.

         Supports   the   KONICA   MINOLTA   magicolor  1690MF  multi-function
         printer/scanner/fax. See sane-magicolor(5) for details.

         Supports some Panasonic  KVSS  high  speed  scanners.  See  sane-mat-
         sushita(5) for details.

         Supports  "second  generation"  Microtek scanners with SCSI-1 command
         set. See sane-microtek(5) for details.

         Supports some Microtek  scanners  with  a  SCSI-2  command  set.  See
         sane-microtek2(5) for details.

         Supports  most Mustek SCSI flatbed scanners including the Paragon and
         ScanExpress series and the 600 II N and 600 II  EP  (non-SCSI).  Some
         Trust scanners are also supported. See sane-mustek(5) for details.

         Supports Mustek parallel port flatbed scanners. See sane-mustek_pp(5)
         for details.

         Supports  some  Mustek  ScanExpress   USB   flatbed   scanners.   See
         sane-mustek_usb(5) for details.

         Supports  scanners  using  the  SQ113 chipset like the Mustek BearPaw
         2448 TA Pro USB flatbed scanner. See sane-mustek_usb2(5) for details.

         Supports the NEC PC-IN500/4C SCSI scanner. See  sane-nec(5)  for  de-

         Supports the Agfa Snapscan Touch and the HP ScanJet 3300c, 3400c, and
         4300c USB flatbed scanners. See sane-niash(5) for details.

         Supports the Primax PagePartner. See sane-p5(5) for details.

         Supports Pacific Image Electronics  (PIE)  and  Devcom  SCSI  flatbed
         scanners. See sane-pie(5) for details.

         Supports Canon PIXMA MP series (multi-function devices), Canon image-
         CLASS series (laser devices), Canon  MAXIFY  series  and  some  Canon
         CanoScan series. See sane-pixma(5) for details.

         Supports  USB  flatbed  scanners  that use the National Semiconductor
         LM983[1/2/3] chipset aka Merlin. Scanners using this LM983x chips in-
         clude  some models from Plustek, KYE/Genius, Hewlett-Packard, Mustek,
         Umax, Epson, and Canon. See sane-plustek(5) for details.

         Supports Plustek parallel port flatbed  scanners  using  the  Plustek
         ASIC  P96001,  P96003,  P98001 and P98003, which includes some models
         from Plustek, KYE/Genius, Primax. See sane-plustek_pp(5) for details.

         Supports the Ricoh flatbed scanners IS50 and IS60. See  sane-ricoh(5)
         for details.

         Supports  the  Ricoh  flatbed  scanners:  SG-3100SNw,  SP-100SU,  and
         SP-111SU. See sane-ricoh2(5) for details.

         Supports Siemens 9036 flatbed scanners.  See  sane-s9036(5)  for  de-

         Supports  the  Sceptre S1200 flatbed scanner. See sane-sceptre(5) for

         Supports Sharp SCSI scanners. See sane-sharp(5) for details.

         Supports the Microtek ScanMaker 3600 USB scanner. See  sane-sm3600(5)
         for details.

         Supports the Microtek ScanMaker 3840 USB scanner.  See sane-sm3840(5)
         for details.

         Supports AGFA SnapScan flatbed scanners including some which are  re-
         badged to other brands. See sane-snapscan(5) for details.

         Supports  the  Fujitsu  FCPA  ScanPartner  15C  flatbed  scanner. See
         sane-sp15c(5) for details.

         Supports the Siemens ST400 and ST800. See sane-st400(5) for details.

         Supports Tamarack Artiscan flatbed scanners. See sane-tamarack(5) for

       teco1 teco2 teco3
         Supports  some  TECO scanners, usually sold under the Relisys, Trust,
         Primax, Piotech, Dextra names. See sane-teco1(5),  sane-teco2(5)  and
         sane-teco3(5) for details.

         Supports  USB  flatbed scanners based on Plustek's ASIC 98003 (paral-
         lel-port ASIC) and a GeneSys Logics' USB-parport bridge chip like the
         Plustek OpticPro U(T)12. See sane-u12(5) for details.

         Supports UMAX-SCSI-scanners and some Linotype Hell SCSI-scanners. See
         sane-umax(5) for details.

         Supports Umax parallel port flatbed scanners and the  HP  3200C.  See
         sane-umax_pp(5) for details.

         Supports  the  UMAX  Astra  1220U (USB) flatbed scanner (and also the
         UMAX Astra 2000U, sort of). See sane-umax1220u(5) for details.

         Supports multiple Samsung-based Samsung, Xerox,  and  Dell  scanners.
         See sane-xerox_mfp(5) for details.

       Also,    have   a   look   at   the   backend   information   page   at and the list of
       projects in /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/PROJECTS.


         Supports the Kodak DC210 Digital Camera. See sane-dc210(5).

         Supports the Kodak DC240 Digital Camera. See dc240(5).

         Supports Kodak DC20/DC25 Digital Cameras. See dc25(5).

         Supports the Polaroid Digital Microscope Camera. See dmc(5).

         Supports  digital  cameras  supported by the gphoto2 library package.
         (See for more information and a  list  of  sup-
         ported  cameras.)  Gphoto2 supports over 140 different camera models.
         However, please note that more development and testing is needed  be-
         fore  all  of  these  cameras will be supported by SANE backend.  See

         Supports Connectix QuickCam cameras. See qcam(5).

         Supports webcams with a stv680 chip. See stv680(5) for details.

       Also,   have   a   look   at   the   backend   information   page    at and the list of
       projects in /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/PROJECTS.


         Implements a SANE backend that provides access to an arbitrary number
         of other SANE backends by dynamic loading. See sane-dll(5).

         The  SANE network daemon saned(8) provides access to scanners located
         on different computers in connection with  the  sane-net(5)  backend.
         See saned(8).

         PNM  image reader pseudo-backend. The purpose of this backend is pri-
         marily to aid in debugging of SANE frontends. See sane-pnm(5).

         Supports scanners that use  the  PINT  (Pint  Is  Not  Twain)  device
         driver.   The  PINT driver is being actively developed on the OpenBSD
         platform, and has been ported to a few other *NIX-like operating sys-
         tems. See sane-pint(5).

         Tests frontends and the SANE installation.  It provides test pictures
         and various test options. See sane-test(5).

         Provides generic access to video cameras and similar equipment  using
         the V4L (Video for Linux) API. See sane-v4l(5).

       Also,    have   a   look   at   the   backend   information   page   at and the list of
       projects in /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/PROJECTS.


       By  default,  all SANE backends (drivers) are loaded dynamically by the
       sane-dll meta backend. If you have  any  questions  about  the  dynamic
       loading,  read sane-dll(5).  SANE frontends can also be linked to other
       backends directly by copying or linking  a  backend  to  in


       It's  not hard to write a SANE backend. It can take some time, however.
       You should have basic knowledge  of  C  and  enough  patience  to  work
       through the documentation and find out how your scanner works. Appended
       is a list of some documents that help to write backends and frontends.

       The SANE standard defines the application programming  interface  (API)
       that  is  used to communicate between frontends and backends. It can be
       found at .

       There  is  some  more   information   for   programmers   in   /usr/lo-
       cal/share/doc/sane-backends/backend-writing.txt.   Most of the internal
       SANE    routines    (sanei)    are    documented     using     doxygen:   Before  a new backend or frontend
       project is started,  have  a  look  at  /usr/local/share/doc/sane-back-
       ends/PROJECTS  for  projects  that are planned or not yet included into
       the   SANE   distribution   and    at    our    bug-tracking    system:

       There  are  some links on how to find out about the protocol of a scan-

       If you start writing a backend or frontend or any other part  of  SANE,
       please  contact  the  sane-devel  mailing list for coordination so that
       work is not duplicated.


              The backend configuration files.

              The static libraries implementing the backends.

              The shared libraries implementing the backends (present on  sys-
              tems that support dynamic loading).

              SANE documentation: The READMEs, text files for backends etc.


       If your device isn't found but you know that it is supported, make sure
       that it is detected by your operating system. For SCSI  and  USB  scan-
       ners,  use  the  sane-find-scanner(1)  utility.  It prints one line for
       each scanner it has detected and some comments (#).  If sane-find-scan-
       ner(1) finds your scanner only as root but not as normal user, the per-
       missions for the device files are not adjusted correctly. If the  scan-
       ner isn't found at all, the operating system hasn't detected it and may
       need some help. Depending on the type of your scanner, read sane-usb(5)
       or  sane-scsi(5).   If  your scanner (or other device) is not connected
       over the SCSI bus or USB, read the backend's manual page for details on
       how to set it up.

       Is  your scanner detected by the operating system but not by SANE?  Try
       scanimage -L.  If the scanner is not found, check  that  the  backend's
       name is mentioned in /usr/local/etc/sane.d/dll.conf.  Some backends are
       commented out by default. Remove the comment sign for your  backend  in
       this  case.  Also  some backends aren't compiled at all if one of their
       prerequisites are missing. Examples  include  dc210,  dc240,  canon_pp,
       hpsj5s,  gphoto2,  pint,  qcam, v4l, net, sm3600, snapscan, pnm. If you
       need one of these backends and it isn't available, read the  build  in-
       structions  in  the  README file and the individual manual pages of the

       Another reason for not being detected by scanimage -L may be a  missing
       or  incorrect  configuration in the backend's configuration file. While
       SANE tries to automatically find most scanners,  some  can't  be  setup
       correctly  without  the intervention of the administrator. Also on some
       operating systems auto-detection may not work. Check the backend's man-
       ual page for details.

       If your scanner is still not found, try setting the various environment
       variables that are available to assist in debugging.   The  environment
       variables are documented in the relevant manual pages.  For example, to
       get the maximum amount of debug information when testing a Mustek  SCSI
       scanner,  set  environment variables SANE_DEBUG_DLL, SANE_DEBUG_MUSTEK,
       and SANE_DEBUG_SANEI_SCSI to 128 and  then  invoke  scanimage -L.   The
       SANE_DEBUG_DLL  messages  tell  if the sane-mustek(5) backend was found
       and loaded at all. The  SANE_DEBUG_MUSTEK  messages  explain  what  the
       backend  is  doing  while  the  SANE_DEBUG_SCSI debugging shows the low
       level handling. If you can't find out what's going on by  checking  the
       messages  carefully,  contact the sane-devel mailing list for help (see
       REPORTING BUGS below).

       Now that your scanner is found by scanimage -L, try to do a scan: scan-
       image >image.pnm.   This  command starts a scan for the default scanner
       with default settings. All the available options are listed by  running
       scanimage --help.   If  scanning  aborts with an error message, turn on
       debugging as mentioned above. Maybe the configuration file  needs  some
       tuning,  e.g.  to  setup  the path to a firmware that is needed by some
       scanners. See the backend's manual page for details. If you can't  find
       out what's wrong, contact sane-devel.

       To  check  that  the SANE libraries are installed correctly you can use
       the test backend, even if you don't have a scanner or  other  SANE  de-

              scanimage -d test -T

       You  should  get  a list of PASSed tests. You can do the same with your
       backend by changing "test" to your backend's name.

       So now scanning with scanimage (1) works and you want to use one of the
       graphical frontends like xsane(1), xscanimage(1), or quiteinsane(1) but
       those frontends don't detect your scanner? One reason may be  that  you
       installed two versions of SANE.  E.g. the version that was installed by
       your distribution in /usr and one you installed from source in /usr/lo-
       cal/.   Make  sure that only one version is installed. Another possible
       reason is, that your system's dynamic loader can't find  the  SANE  li-
       braries.  For  Linux,  make sure that /etc/ contains /usr/lo-
       cal/lib and does not contain /usr/local/lib/sane.  See also  the  docu-
       mentation of the frontends.


       We  appreciate  any help we can get. Please have a look at our web page
       about contributing to SANE:


       For reporting bugs or requesting new  features,  please  use  our  bug-
       tracking  system:  You can also
       contact the author of your backend directly. Usually the email  address
       can  be found in the /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/AUTHORS file or
       the backend's manpage. For general discussion about  SANE,  please  use
       the SANE mailing list sane-devel (see
       ing-lists.html for details).


       saned(8), sane-find-scanner(1), scanimage(1), sane-abaton(5),  sane-ag-
       fafocus(5),   sane-apple(5),   sane-artec(5),   sane-artec_eplus48u(5),
       sane-as6e(5),     sane-avision(5),      sane-bh(5),      sane-canon(5),
       sane-canon630u(5),   sane-canon_dr(5),   sane-canon_pp(5),   sane-card-
       scan(5),   sane-coolscan(5),   sane-coolscan2(5),    sane-coolscan3(5),
       sane-dc210(5),  sane-dc240(5),  sane-dc25(5), sane-dll(5), sane-dmc(5),
       sane-epson(5),    sane-epson2(5),    sane-escl(5),     sane-fujitsu(5),
       sane-genesys(5),     sane-gphoto2(5),    sane-gt68xx(5),    sane-hp(5),
       sane-hpsj5s(5),   sane-hp3500(5),    sane-hp3900(5),    sane-hp4200(5),
       sane-hp5400(5),    sane-hpljm1005(5),    sane-ibm(5),    sane-kodak(5),
       sane-leo(5),  sane-lexmark(5),  sane-lexmark_x2600(5),  sane-ma1509(5),
       sane-matsushita(5),         sane-microtek2(5),        sane-microtek(5),
       sane-mustek(5),         sane-mustek_pp(5),          sane-mustek_usb(5),
       sane-mustek_usb2(5),     sane-nec(5),    sane-net(5),    sane-niash(5),
       sane-pie(5),   sane-pint(5),    sane-plustek(5),    sane-plustek_pp(5),
       sane-pnm(5),      sane-qcam(5),      sane-ricoh(5),     sane-ricoh2(5),
       sane-s9036(5),    sane-sceptre(5),     sane-scsi(5),     sane-sharp(5),
       sane-sm3600(5),    sane-sm3840(5),   sane-snapscan(5),   sane-sp15c(5),
       sane-st400(5),   sane-stv680(5),    sane-tamarack(5),    sane-teco1(5),
       sane-teco2(5),      sane-teco3(5),      sane-test(5),      sane-u12(5),
       sane-umax1220u(5),    sane-umax(5),    sane-umax_pp(5),    sane-usb(5),
       sane-v4l(5), sane-xerox_mfp(5)


       David Mosberger-Tang and many many more (see /usr/local/share/doc/sane-
       backends/AUTHORS for details).  This man page was  written  by  Henning
       Meier-Geinitz.  Quite  a  lot of text was taken from the SANE standard,
       several man pages, and README files.

                                  03 Jan 2020                          sane(7)

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