sane(7)                  SANE Scanner Access Now Easy                  sane(7)


       sane - Scanner Access Now Easy: API for accessing scanners


       SANE  is an application programming interface (API) that provides stan-
       dardized access to any raster image scanner hardware. The  standardized
       interface  makes  it possible to write just one driver for each scanner
       device instead of one driver for each scanner and application.

       While SANE is primarily targeted at a UNIX  environment,  the  standard
       has been carefully designed to make it possible to implement the API on
       virtually any hardware or operating system.

       This manual page provides a summary of the information available  about

       If  you  have  trouble getting your scanner detected, read the PROBLEMS


       An application that uses the SANE interface is called a SANE  frontend.
       A  driver  that implements the SANE interface is called a SANE backend.
       A meta backend provides some means to manage one or  more  other  back-


       The  package sane-backends contains backends, documentation, networking
       support, and the command line frontend scanimage(1).  The frontends xs-
       canimage(1),  xcam(1),  and  scanadf(1)  are  included  in  the package
       sane-frontends.  Both packages can be downloaded from the SANE homepage
       (   Information about other frontends and
       backends can also be found on the SANE homepage.


       The following sections provide short descriptions and links to more in-
       formation  about  several  aspects  of  SANE.   A name with a number in
       parenthesis (e.g.  sane-dll(5)) points to a manual page. In  this  case
       man 5 sane-dll   will   display   the   page.   Entries  like  /usr/lo-
       cal/share/doc/sane-backends/README are references to  text  files  that
       were   copied   to   the   SANE   documentation   directory   (/usr/lo-
       cal/share/doc/sane-backends/) during installation. Everything else is a
       URL to a resource on the web.

       SANE homepage
         Information on all aspects of SANE including a tutorial and a link to
         the   SANE   FAQ   can   be   found    on    the    SANE    homepage:

       SANE device lists
         The  SANE  device  lists contain information about the status of SANE
         support for a specific device. If your scanner is  not  listed  there
         (either supported or unsupported), please contact us. See section HOW
         CAN YOU HELP SANE for details. There are lists for specific  releases
         of  SANE,  for  the  current development version and a search engine:   The  lists
         are  also installed on your system at /usr/local/share/doc/sane-back-

       SANE mailing list
         There is a mailing list for the purpose of discussing the SANE  stan-
         dard and its implementations: sane-devel.  Despite its name, the list
         is not only intended for developers, but also for  users.  There  are
         also some more lists for special topics. However, for users, sane-de-
         vel  is  the  right  list.  How   to   subscribe   and   unsubscribe:

       SANE IRC channel
         The  IRC  (Internet  Relay  Chat)  channel  #sane can be found on the
         Freenode network ( It's for  discussing  SANE  prob-
         lems,  talking  about  development and general SANE related chatting.
         Before asking for help, please read the other documentation mentioned
         in  this  manual page. The channel's topic is also used for announce-
         ments of  problems  with  SANE  infrastructure  (mailing  lists,  web
         server, etc.).

       Compiling and installing SANE
         Look  at  /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/README and the os-depen-
         dent README files for  information  about  compiling  and  installing

       SCSI configuration
         For  information  about  various  systems  and  SCSI  controllers see

       USB configuration
         For information about USB configuration see sane-usb(5).


         Command-line frontend. See scanimage(1).

         SANE network daemon that allows remote clients to access image acqui-
         sition devices available on the local host. See saned(8).

         Command-line  tool  to find SCSI and USB scanners and determine their
         UNIX device files. See sane-find-scanner(1).

       Also, have a look at the sane-frontends package (which includes  xscan-
       image(1), xcam(1), and scanadf(1)) and the frontend information page at


         Supports Abaton flatbed scanners such as the Scan 300/GS  (8bit,  256
         levels  of  gray) and the Scan 300/S (black and white, untested). See
         sane-abaton(5) for details.

         Supports AGFA Focus scanners and the Siemens S9036  (untested).   See
         sane-agfafocus(5) for details.

         Supports Apple flatbed scanners including the following scanners: Ap-
         pleScanner, OneScanner and ColorOneScanner. See sane-apple(5) for de-

         Supports  several  Artec/Ultima  SCSI flatbed scanners as well as the
         BlackWidow BW4800SP and the Plustek 19200S. See sane-artec(5) for de-

         Supports the Artec E+ 48U scanner and re-badged models like Tevion MD
         9693, Medion MD 9693, Medion MD 9705 and Trust  Easy  Webscan  19200.
         See sane-artec_eplus48u(5) for details.

         Supports   the  Artec  AS6E  parallel  port  interface  scanner.  See
         sane-as6e(5) for details.

         Supports several Avision based scanners including the  original  Avi-
         sion  scanners  (like  AV 630, AV 620, ...) as well as the HP ScanJet
         53xx and 74xx series, Fujitsu ScanPartner, some  Mitsubishi  and  Mi-
         nolta film-scanners.  See sane-avision(5) for details.

         Supports  Bell+Howell  Copiscan  II  series  document  scanners.  See
         sane-bh(5) for details.

         Supports the CanoScan 300, CanoScan  600,  and  CanoScan  2700F  SCSI
         flatbed scanners. See sane-canon(5) for details.

         Supports   the   CanoScan   630u   and   636u   USB   scanners.   See
         sane-canon630u(5) for details.

         Supports  the  Canon  DR-Series  ADF  SCSI  and  USB  scanners.   See
         sane-canon_dr(5) for details.

         Supports   the   CanoScan   LiDE   70   and  600  USB  scanners.  See
         sane-canon_lide70(5) for details.

         Supports the CanoScan FB330P, FB630P, N340P and N640P  parallel  port
         scanners.  See sane-canon_pp(5) for details.

         Support for Corex Cardscan USB scanners. See sane-cardscan(5) for de-

       coolscan coolscan2 coolscan3
         Supports  Nikon   Coolscan   film-scanners.   See   sane-coolscan(5),
         sane-coolscan2(5) and sane-coolscan3(5) for details.

         Supports  Epson-based  Fujitsu  USB scanners. See sane-epjitsu(5) for

         Old driver for Epson SCSI, parallel port and  USB  flatbed  scanners.
         See sane-epson(5) for details but try epson2 first.

         Newer  driver  for Epson SCSI, parallel port, network and USB flatbed
         scanners (try this before epson  which  is  outdated).  See  sane-ep-
         son2(5) for details.

         Supports scanners through the eSCL protocol. See sane-escl(5) for de-

         Supports most Fujitsu SCSI and USB, flatbed  and  adf  scanners.  See
         sane-fujitsu(5) for details.

         Supports  several  scanners  based on the Genesys Logic GL646, GL841,
         GL843, GL847 and GL124 chips like the Medion 6471 and Hewlett-Packard
         2300c.  See sane-genesys(5) for details.

         Supports  scanners  based  on the Grandtech GT-6801 and GT-6816 chips
         like the Artec Ultima 2000 and several Mustek BearPaw CU and TA  mod-
         Some  Genius, Lexmark, Medion, Packard Bell, Plustek, and Trust scan-
         ners are also supported. See sane-gt68xx(5) for details.

         Supports Hewlett-Packard ScanJet scanners which utilize SCL  (Scanner
         Control Language by HP). See sane-hp(5) for details.

         Supports  the  Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 5S scanner. See sane-hpsj5s(5)
         for details.

         Supports the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 3500 series. See  sane-hp3500(5)
         for details.

         Supports  the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 3900 series. See sane-hp3900(5)
         for details.

         Supports the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 4200 series. See  sane-hp4200(5)
         for details.

         Supports the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 54XXC series. See sane-hp5400(5)
         for details.

         Supports   the   Hewlett-Packard   LaserJet   M1005   scanner.    See
         sane-hpljm1005(5) for details.

         Supports  the  Ricoh  IS450 family of SCSI scanners. See sane-hs2p(5)
         for details.

         Supports some IBM and Ricoh SCSI scanners. See  sane-ibm(5)  for  de-

         Supports some large Kodak scanners. See sane-kodak(5) for details.

         Supports  Kodak  AiO  printer/scanners.  See sane-kodakaio(5) for de-

         Supports Panasonic KV-S102xC scanners. See  sane-kvs1025(5)  for  de-

         Supports  the LEO S3 and the Across FS-1130, which is a re-badged LEO
         FS-1130 scanner. See sane-leo(5) for details.

         Supports the Lexmark X1100 series  of  USB  scanners.  See  sane-lex-
         mark(5) for details.

         Supports   the   Mustek   BearPaw  1200F  USB  flatbed  scanner.  See
         sane-ma1509(5) for details.

         Supports  the  KONICA   MINOLTA   magicolor   1690MF   multi-function
         printer/scanner/fax. See sane-magicolor(5) for details.

         Supports  some  Panasonic  KVSS  high  speed  scanners. See sane-mat-
         sushita(5) for details.

         Supports "second generation" Microtek scanners  with  SCSI-1  command
         set. See sane-microtek(5) for details.

         Supports  some  Microtek  scanners  with  a  SCSI-2  command set. See
         sane-microtek2(5) for details.

         Supports most Mustek SCSI flatbed scanners including the Paragon  and
         ScanExpress  series  and  the 600 II N and 600 II EP (non-SCSI). Some
         Trust scanners are also supported. See sane-mustek(5) for details.

         Supports Mustek parallel port flatbed scanners. See sane-mustek_pp(5)
         for details.

         Supports   some   Mustek   ScanExpress   USB  flatbed  scanners.  See
         sane-mustek_usb(5) for details.

         Supports scanners using the SQ113 chipset  like  the  Mustek  BearPaw
         2448 TA Pro USB flatbed scanner. See sane-mustek_usb2(5) for details.

         Supports  the  NEC  PC-IN500/4C SCSI scanner. See sane-nec(5) for de-

         Supports the Agfa Snapscan Touch and the HP ScanJet 3300c, 3400c, and
         4300c USB flatbed scanners. See sane-niash(5) for details.

         Supports the Primax PagePartner. See sane-p5(5) for details.

         Supports  Pacific  Image  Electronics  (PIE)  and Devcom SCSI flatbed
         scanners. See sane-pie(5) for details.

         Supports Canon PIXMA MP series (multi-function devices), Canon image-
         CLASS  series  (laser  devices),  Canon  MAXIFY series and some Canon
         CanoScan series. See sane-pixma(5) for details.

         Supports USB flatbed scanners that  use  the  National  Semiconductor
         LM983[1/2/3] chipset aka Merlin. Scanners using this LM983x chips in-
         clude some models from Plustek, KYE/Genius, Hewlett-Packard,  Mustek,
         Umax, Epson, and Canon. See sane-plustek(5) for details.

         Supports  Plustek  parallel  port  flatbed scanners using the Plustek
         ASIC P96001, P96003, P98001 and P98003, which  includes  some  models
         from Plustek, KYE/Genius, Primax. See sane-plustek_pp(5) for details.

         Supports  the Ricoh flatbed scanners IS50 and IS60. See sane-ricoh(5)
         for details.

         Supports  the  Ricoh  flatbed  scanners:  SG-3100SNw,  SP-100SU,  and
         SP-111SU. See sane-ricoh2(5) for details.

         Supports  Siemens  9036  flatbed  scanners. See sane-s9036(5) for de-

         Supports the Sceptre S1200 flatbed scanner. See  sane-sceptre(5)  for

         Supports Sharp SCSI scanners. See sane-sharp(5) for details.

         Supports  the Microtek ScanMaker 3600 USB scanner. See sane-sm3600(5)
         for details.

         Supports the Microtek ScanMaker 3840 USB scanner.  See sane-sm3840(5)
         for details.

         Supports  AGFA SnapScan flatbed scanners including some which are re-
         badged to other brands. See sane-snapscan(5) for details.

         Supports the  Fujitsu  FCPA  ScanPartner  15C  flatbed  scanner.  See
         sane-sp15c(5) for details.

         Supports the Siemens ST400 and ST800. See sane-st400(5) for details.

         Supports Tamarack Artiscan flatbed scanners. See sane-tamarack(5) for

       teco1 teco2 teco3
         Supports some TECO scanners, usually sold under the  Relisys,  Trust,
         Primax,  Piotech,  Dextra names. See sane-teco1(5), sane-teco2(5) and
         sane-teco3(5) for details.

         Supports USB flatbed scanners based on Plustek's ASIC  98003  (paral-
         lel-port ASIC) and a GeneSys Logics' USB-parport bridge chip like the
         Plustek OpticPro U(T)12. See sane-u12(5) for details.

         Supports UMAX-SCSI-scanners and some Linotype Hell SCSI-scanners. See
         sane-umax(5) for details.

         Supports  Umax  parallel  port flatbed scanners and the HP 3200C. See
         sane-umax_pp(5) for details.

         Supports the UMAX Astra 1220U (USB) flatbed  scanner  (and  also  the
         UMAX Astra 2000U, sort of). See sane-umax1220u(5) for details.

         Supports  multiple  Samsung-based  Samsung, Xerox, and Dell scanners.
         See sane-xerox_mfp(5) for details.

       Also,   have   a   look   at   the   backend   information   page    at and the list of
       projects in /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/PROJECTS.


         Supports the Kodak DC210 Digital Camera. See sane-dc210(5).

         Supports the Kodak DC240 Digital Camera. See dc240(5).

         Supports Kodak DC20/DC25 Digital Cameras. See dc25(5).

         Supports the Polaroid Digital Microscope Camera. See dmc(5).

         Supports digital cameras supported by the  gphoto2  library  package.
         (See  for  more information and a list of sup-
         ported cameras.)  Gphoto2 supports over 140 different camera  models.
         However,  please note that more development and testing is needed be-
         fore all of these cameras will be supported  by  SANE  backend.   See

         Supports Connectix QuickCam cameras. See qcam(5).

         Supports webcams with a stv680 chip. See stv680(5) for details.

       Also,    have   a   look   at   the   backend   information   page   at and the list of
       projects in /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/PROJECTS.


         Implements a SANE backend that provides access to an arbitrary number
         of other SANE backends by dynamic loading. See sane-dll(5).

         The SANE network daemon saned(8) provides access to scanners  located
         on  different  computers  in connection with the sane-net(5) backend.
         See saned(8).

         PNM image reader pseudo-backend. The purpose of this backend is  pri-
         marily to aid in debugging of SANE frontends. See sane-pnm(5).

         Supports  scanners  that  use  the  PINT  (Pint  Is Not Twain) device
         driver.  The PINT driver is being actively developed on  the  OpenBSD
         platform, and has been ported to a few other *NIX-like operating sys-
         tems. See sane-pint(5).

         Tests frontends and the SANE installation.  It provides test pictures
         and various test options. See sane-test(5).

         Provides  generic access to video cameras and similar equipment using
         the V4L (Video for Linux) API. See sane-v4l(5).

       Also,   have   a   look   at   the   backend   information   page    at and the list of
       projects in /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/PROJECTS.


       By default, all SANE backends (drivers) are loaded dynamically  by  the
       sane-dll  meta  backend.  If  you  have any questions about the dynamic
       loading, read sane-dll(5).  SANE frontends can also be linked to  other
       backends  directly  by  copying  or  linking a backend to in


       It's not hard to write a SANE backend. It can take some time,  however.
       You  should  have  basic  knowledge  of  C  and enough patience to work
       through the documentation and find out how your scanner works. Appended
       is a list of some documents that help to write backends and frontends.

       The  SANE  standard defines the application programming interface (API)
       that is used to communicate between frontends and backends. It  can  be
       found at .

       There   is   some   more   information   for  programmers  in  /usr/lo-
       cal/share/doc/sane-backends/backend-writing.txt.  Most of the  internal
       SANE     routines     (sanei)    are    documented    using    doxygen:  Before a new backend  or  frontend
       project  is  started,  have  a  look at /usr/local/share/doc/sane-back-
       ends/PROJECTS for projects that are planned or not  yet  included  into
       the    SANE    distribution    and    at   our   bug-tracking   system:

       There are some links on how to find out about the protocol of  a  scan-

       If  you  start writing a backend or frontend or any other part of SANE,
       please contact the sane-devel mailing list  for  coordination  so  that
       work is not duplicated.


              The backend configuration files.

              The static libraries implementing the backends.

              The  shared libraries implementing the backends (present on sys-
              tems that support dynamic loading).

              SANE documentation: The READMEs, text files for backends etc.


       If your device isn't found but you know that it is supported, make sure
       that  it  is  detected by your operating system. For SCSI and USB scan-
       ners, use the sane-find-scanner(1) utility.  It  prints  one  line  for
       each scanner it has detected and some comments (#).  If sane-find-scan-
       ner(1) finds your scanner only as root but not as normal user, the per-
       missions  for the device files are not adjusted correctly. If the scan-
       ner isn't found at all, the operating system hasn't detected it and may
       need some help. Depending on the type of your scanner, read sane-usb(5)
       or sane-scsi(5).  If your scanner (or other device)  is  not  connected
       over the SCSI bus or USB, read the backend's manual page for details on
       how to set it up.

       Is your scanner detected by the operating system but not by SANE?   Try
       scanimage -L.   If  the  scanner is not found, check that the backend's
       name is mentioned in /usr/local/etc/sane.d/dll.conf.  Some backends are
       commented  out  by default. Remove the comment sign for your backend in
       this case. Also some backends aren't compiled at all if  one  of  their
       prerequisites  are  missing.  Examples  include dc210, dc240, canon_pp,
       hpsj5s, gphoto2, pint, qcam, v4l, net, sm3600, snapscan,  pnm.  If  you
       need  one  of these backends and it isn't available, read the build in-
       structions in the README file and the individual manual  pages  of  the

       Another  reason for not being detected by scanimage -L may be a missing
       or incorrect configuration in the backend's configuration  file.  While
       SANE  tries  to  automatically  find most scanners, some can't be setup
       correctly without the intervention of the administrator. Also  on  some
       operating systems auto-detection may not work. Check the backend's man-
       ual page for details.

       If your scanner is still not found, try setting the various environment
       variables  that  are available to assist in debugging.  The environment
       variables are documented in the relevant manual pages.  For example, to
       get  the maximum amount of debug information when testing a Mustek SCSI
       scanner, set environment variables  SANE_DEBUG_DLL,  SANE_DEBUG_MUSTEK,
       and  SANE_DEBUG_SANEI_SCSI  to  128  and then invoke scanimage -L.  The
       SANE_DEBUG_DLL messages tell if the sane-mustek(5)  backend  was  found
       and  loaded  at  all.  The  SANE_DEBUG_MUSTEK messages explain what the
       backend is doing while the  SANE_DEBUG_SCSI  debugging  shows  the  low
       level  handling.  If you can't find out what's going on by checking the
       messages carefully, contact the sane-devel mailing list for  help  (see
       REPORTING BUGS below).

       Now that your scanner is found by scanimage -L, try to do a scan: scan-
       image >image.pnm.  This command starts a scan for the  default  scanner
       with  default settings. All the available options are listed by running
       scanimage --help.  If scanning aborts with an error  message,  turn  on
       debugging  as  mentioned above. Maybe the configuration file needs some
       tuning, e.g. to setup the path to a firmware that  is  needed  by  some
       scanners.  See the backend's manual page for details. If you can't find
       out what's wrong, contact sane-devel.

       To check that the SANE libraries are installed correctly  you  can  use
       the  test  backend,  even if you don't have a scanner or other SANE de-

              scanimage -d test -T

       You should get a list of PASSed tests. You can do the  same  with  your
       backend by changing "test" to your backend's name.

       So now scanning with scanimage (1) works and you want to use one of the
       graphical frontends like xsane(1), xscanimage(1),  or  quiteinsane  (1)
       but  those  frontends don't detect your scanner? One reason may be that
       you installed two versions of SANE.  E.g.  the  version  that  was  in-
       stalled  by your distribution in /usr and one you installed from source
       in /usr/local/.  Make sure that only one version is installed.  Another
       possible  reason  is,  that your system's dynamic loader can't find the
       SANE libraries. For Linux,  make  sure  that  /etc/  contains
       /usr/local/lib  and does not contain /usr/local/lib/sane.  See also the
       documentation of the frontends.


       We appreciate any help we can get. Please have a look at our  web  page
       about contributing to SANE:


       For  reporting  bugs  or  requesting  new features, please use our bug-
       tracking system:  You  can  also
       contact  the author of your backend directly. Usually the email address
       can be found in the /usr/local/share/doc/sane-backends/AUTHORS file  or
       the  backend's  manpage.  For general discussion about SANE, please use
       the SANE mailing list sane-devel (see
       ing-lists.html for details).


       saned(8),  sane-find-scanner(1), scanimage(1), sane-abaton(5), sane-ag-
       fafocus(5),   sane-apple(5),   sane-artec(5),   sane-artec_eplus48u(5),
       sane-as6e(5),      sane-avision(5),      sane-bh(5),     sane-canon(5),
       sane-canon630u(5),   sane-canon_dr(5),   sane-canon_pp(5),   sane-card-
       scan(5),    sane-coolscan(5),   sane-coolscan2(5),   sane-coolscan3(5),
       sane-dc210(5), sane-dc240(5), sane-dc25(5),  sane-dll(5),  sane-dmc(5),
       sane-epson(5),     sane-epson2(5),    sane-escl(5),    sane-fujitsu(5),
       sane-genesys(5),    sane-gphoto2(5),    sane-gt68xx(5),     sane-hp(5),
       sane-hpsj5s(5),    sane-hp3500(5),    sane-hp3900(5),   sane-hp4200(5),
       sane-hp5400(5),    sane-hpljm1005(5),    sane-ibm(5),    sane-kodak(5),
       sane-leo(5),   sane-lexmark(5),   sane-ma1509(5),   sane-matsushita(5),
       sane-microtek2(5), sane-microtek(5), sane-mustek(5), sane-mustek_pp(5),
       sane-mustek_usb(5),   sane-mustek_usb2(5),   sane-nec(5),  sane-net(5),
       sane-niash(5), sane-pie(5), sane-pint(5),  sane-plustek(5),  sane-plus-
       tek_pp(5),  sane-pnm(5),  sane-qcam(5),  sane-ricoh(5), sane-ricoh2(5),
       sane-s9036(5),    sane-sceptre(5),     sane-scsi(5),     sane-sharp(5),
       sane-sm3600(5),    sane-sm3840(5),   sane-snapscan(5),   sane-sp15c(5),
       sane-st400(5),   sane-stv680(5),    sane-tamarack(5),    sane-teco1(5),
       sane-teco2(5),      sane-teco3(5),      sane-test(5),      sane-u12(5),
       sane-umax1220u(5),    sane-umax(5),    sane-umax_pp(5),    sane-usb(5),
       sane-v4l(5), sane-xerox_mfp(5)


       David Mosberger-Tang and many many more (see /usr/local/share/doc/sane-
       backends/AUTHORS for details).  This man page was  written  by  Henning
       Meier-Geinitz.  Quite  a  lot of text was taken from the SANE standard,
       several man pages, and README files.

                                  03 Jan 2020                          sane(7)

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