saned(8) SANE Scanner Access Now Easy saned(8)
saned - SANE network daemon
saned [ -a [ username ] ] [ -u username ] [ -b address ] [ -p port ] [
-l ] [ -D ] [ -o ] [ -d n ] [ -e ] [ -h ]
saned is the SANE (Scanner Access Now Easy) daemon that allows remote
clients to access image acquisition devices available on the local
The -l flag requests that saned run in standalone daemon mode. In this
mode, saned will listen for incoming client connections; inetd(8) is
not required for saned operations in this mode. The -b flag tells saned
to bind to the address given. The -p flags tells saned to listen on
the port given. A value of 0 tells saned to pick an unused port. The
default is the sane-port (6566). The -u flag requests that saned drop
root privileges and run as the user (and group) associated with user-
name after binding. The -D flag will request saned to detach from the
console and run in the background. The flag -a is equivalent to the
combination of -l -B -u username options.
The -d flag sets the level of saned debug output. When compiled with
debugging enabled, this flag may be followed by a number to request
more or less debug info. The larger the number, the more verbose the
debug output. E.g., -d128 will request output of all debug info. A
level of 0 produces no output at all. The default value is 2.
The -e flag will divert saned debug output to stderr instead of the
The -o flag requests that saned exits after the first client discon-
nects. This is useful for debugging.
The -h flag displays a short help message.
If saned is run from other programs such as inetd(8), xinetd(8) and
systemd(1), check that program's documentation on how to pass command-
First and foremost: saned is not intended to be exposed to the internet
or other non-trusted networks. Make sure that access is limited by tcp-
wrappers and/or a firewall setup. Don't depend only on saned's own au-
thentication. Don't run saned as root if it's not necessary. And do not
install saned as setuid root.
The saned.conf configuration file contains both options for the daemon
and the access list.
data_portrange = min_port - max_port
Specify the port range to use for the data connection. Pick a
port range between 1024 and 65535; don't pick a too large port
range, as it may have performance issues. Use this option if
your saned server is sitting behind a firewall. If that firewall
is a Linux machine, we strongly recommend using the Netfilter
nf_conntrack_sane module instead.
data_connect_timeout = timeout
Specify the time in milliseconds that saned will wait for a data
connection. Without this option, if the data connection is not
done before the scanner reaches the end of scan, the scanner
will continue to scan past the end and may damage it depending
on the backend. Specify zero to have the old behavior. The de-
fault is 4000ms.
The access list is a list of host names, IP addresses or IP subnets
(CIDR notation) that are permitted to use local SANE devices. IPv6 ad-
dresses must be enclosed in brackets, and should always be specified in
their compressed form. Connections from localhost are always permitted.
Empty lines and lines starting with a hash mark (#) are ignored. A line
containing the single character ``+'' is interpreted to match any host-
name. This allows any remote machine to use your scanner and may
present a security risk, so this shouldn't be used unless you know what
A sample configuration file is shown below:
# Daemon options
data_portrange = 10000 - 10100
# Access list
# this is a comment
The case of the host names does not matter, so AHost.COM is considered
identical to ahost.com.
SERVER DAEMON CONFIGURATION
For saned to work properly in its default mode of operation, it is also
necessary to add the appropriate configuration for xinetd(8), inetd(8)
or systemd(1) (see below). Note that your inetd(8) must support IPv6
if you want to connect to saned over IPv6; xinetd(8), openbsd-inetd(8)
and systemd(1) are known to support IPv6, check the documentation for
your inetd(8) daemon.
In the sections below the configuration for inetd(8), xinetd(8) and
systemd(1) are described in more detail.
For the configurations below it is necessary to add a line of the fol-
lowing form to /etc/services:
sane-port 6566/tcp # SANE network scanner daemon
The official IANA short name for port 6566 is "sane-port". The older
name "sane" is now deprecated.
It is required to add a single line to the inetd(8) configuration file
The configuration line normally looks like this:
sane-port stream tcp nowait saned.saned /usr/local/sbin/saned
However, if your system uses tcpd(8) for additional security screening,
you may want to disable saned access control by putting ``+'' in
saned.conf and use a line of the following form in /etc/inetd.conf in-
sane-port stream tcp nowait saned.saned /usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/lo-
Note that both examples assume that there is a saned group and a saned
user. If you follow this example, please make sure that the access
permissions on the special device are set such that saned can access
the scanner (the program generally needs read and write access to scan-
If xinetd(8) is installed on your system instead of inetd(8) the fol-
lowing example for /etc/xinetd.conf may be helpful:
# default: off
# description: The sane server accepts requests
# for network access to a local scanner via the
port = 6566
socket_type = stream
wait = no
user = saned
group = saned
server = /usr/local/sbin/saned
saned can be compiled with explicit systemd(1)support.This will allow
logging debugging information to be forwarded to the systemd(1) jour-
nal. The systemd(1) support requires compilation with the systemd-devel
package installed on the system. this is the preferred option.
saned can be used with systemd(1) without the systemd(1) integration
compiled in, but then logging of debug information is not supported.
The systemd(1) configuration is different for the 2 options, so both
are described below.
Systemd configuration for saned with systemd support compiled in
For systemd(1) configuration we need to add 2 configuration files in
The first file we need to add here is called saned.socket. It shall
have the following contents:
Description=saned incoming socket
The second file to be added is saned@.service with the following con-
# If you need to debug your configuration uncomment the next line and
# change it as appropriate to set the desired debug options
# Environment=SANE_DEBUG_DLL=255 SANE_DEBUG_BJNP=5
You need to set an environment variable for SANE_CONFIG_DIR pointing to
the directory where saned can find its configuration files. you will
have to remove the # on the last line and set the variables for the de-
sired debugging information if required. Multiple variables can be set
by separating the assignments by spaces as shown in the example above.
Unlike xinetd(8) and inetd(8), systemd(1) allows debugging output from
backends set using SANE_DEBUG_XXX to be captured. See the man-page for
your backend to see what options are supported. With the service unit
as described above, the debugging output is forwarded to the system
Systemd configuration when saned is compiled without systemd support
This configuration will also work when saned is compiled WITH sys-
temd(1)integrationsupport,butitdoesnotallowdebugging information to be
For systemd(1) configuration for saned, we need to add 2 configuration
files in /etc/systemd/system.
The first file we need to add here is called saned.socket. It is iden-
tical to the version for systemd(1) with the support compiled in. It
shall have the following contents:
Description=saned incoming socket
The second file to be added is saned@.service This one differs from the
version with systemd(1) integration compiled in:
The hosts listed in this file are permitted to access all local
SANE devices. Caveat: this file imposes serious security risks
and its use is not recommended.
Contains a list of hosts permitted to access local SANE devices
(see also description of SANE_CONFIG_DIR below).
If this file contains lines of the form
access to the listed backends is restricted. A backend may be
listed multiple times for different user/password combinations.
The server uses MD5 hashing if supported by the client.
This environment variable specifies the list of directories that
may contain the configuration file. Under UNIX, the directories
are separated by a colon (`:'), under OS/2, they are separated
by a semi-colon (`;'). If this variable is not set, the config-
uration file is searched in two default directories: first, the
current working directory (".") and then in /usr/lo-
cal/etc/sane.d. If the value of the environment variable ends
with the directory separator character, then the default direc-
tories are searched after the explicitly specified directories.
For example, setting SANE_CONFIG_DIR to "/tmp/config:" would re-
sult in directories tmp/config, ., and /usr/local/etc/sane.d be-
ing searched (in this order).
sane(7), scanimage(1), xscanimage(1), xcam(1), sane-dll(5),
sane-net(5), sane-"backendname"(5), inetd(8), xinetd(8), systemd(1),
29 Sep 2017 saned(8)
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